Cartographic Memories of Slavery and Freedom

In Dr. Hanna’s article he wrote about life of John Washington, a former enslaved man, and part of his life from his memoir and about the map he drew. John Washington was a able to free himself when the Union arrived in Fredericksburg, Virginia. In the memoir Washington wrote he included a map of Fredericksburg. Dr. Hanna noted an interesting fact that Washington expressed places of importance with numbers. It tied back into the idea of who created the map and what did they see as important. Washington’s map was classified as a memory and a subaltern and subversive cartographic category (51). Washington maps contradicts other maps in because he used his to show slavery in Fredericksburg, but also his empactation. Dr. Hanna then discusses how to interpret Washington’s map. While other historians have looked at the memoir the map had received little attention. Which was noted in the reading of “The New Nature of Maps”. One historian had commented that the map was “crude” drawing. Washington’s map is part of the marginalized section of the group. Washington’s map is considered a re-enactment of his life and experience. Plus his map is from his memory. Dr. Hanna made the connection that since his map is from memory that it was probably influenced by newspaper and other items he read as a free man. Dr. Hanna wrote when he was interpreting the map he will be looking at Washington in his life experience as a slave and than him as a free man. Next Dr. Hanna wrote about John Washington’s Fredericksburg. There were different ways to control people by policy and than violent force. The problem was in that in urban life there was miz between slavery and free people within the same area. So owners had to take extra precaution for surveillance. This includes Washington’s own thoughts to how he was treated as a slave. He had to some freedom in movement but required permission. Washington also included moments on his map where he experienced freedom as an enslaved man. The next portion of Washington’s article was about becoming a map author. It is important to understand his life before and after of a slave. It also important to see that only a small percentage of former slaves could read or write. It was suggested that Washington used maps to share his story. Washington was not requested to write

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